Tauheed


Tawheed in Arabic means attributing Oneness to Allah and describing Him as being One and Unique, with no partner or peer in His Essence and Attributes.

The Arabs say waahid, ahad and waheed, all meaning one. Allah is Waahid, meaning that He has no rivals or peers in any way. So Tawheed means knowing Allah is One, with none like unto Him. Whoever does not acknowledge Allah in these terms and does not describe Him as being One with no partner or associate does not believe in Tawheed.

With regard to the shar‘i definition of Tawheed, it means believing in Allah alone as God and Lord and attributing to Him alone all the attributes of Lordship and divinity.

It may be defined as follows: Believing that Allah is One with no partner or associate in His Lordship (ruboobiyyah), divinity (uloohiyyah) or names and attributes (al-asma‘ wa‘l-sifaat).

This word (Tawheed) and its derivatives are used with this meaning in the Qur‘aan and Sunnah. For example:

Allah says: ’Say (O Muhammad): He is Allah, (the) One [Ahad]. Allah-us-Samad [Allah ” the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need]. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him“ [al-Ikhlaas 112:1-3]

’And your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah [ilaahun waahidun] (God ” Allah), Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful“ [al-Baqarah 2:163]

’Surely, disbelievers are those who said: …Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity).‘ But there is no Ilaah (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilaah [ilaahun waahidun] (God ”Allah). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall on the disbelievers among them“ [al-Maa'idah 5:73]

And there are many similar verses.

In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (7372) and Saheeh Muslim (19) it is narrated that Ibn …Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent Mu‘aadh ibn Jabal to Yemen, he said to him: ’You are going to people from among the People of the Book, so let the first thing to which you call them be belief in Allah alone (Tawheed). If they accept that, then tell them that Allaah has enjoined on them five prayers every day and night. If they pray then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them zakaah from their wealth to be taken from their rich and given to their poor. If they agree to that then take it from them but avoid the best of people‘s wealth.“

In Saheeh Muslim it is narrated from Ibn …Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ’Islam is built on five (pillars): belief that Allah is One, establishing regular prayer, paying zakaah, fasting Ramadaan and Hajj.“

What is meant by Tawheed in all these texts is affirming the meaning of the testimony that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, which is the essence of the religion of Islam with which Allah sent His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), based on the evidence of the words of the Qur‘aan and Sunnah. In some versions of the hadeeth of Mu‘aadh quoted above it says: ’You will come to some people from among the People of the Book so when you come to them, call them to bear witness that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.“ Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1492.

According to another version of the hadeeth of Ibn …Umar: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ’Islam is based on five (pillars): the testimony that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger...“ Narrated by Muslim.

This indicates that Tawheed is the essence of the testimony that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and that this is Islam with which Allah sent His Prophet to the two races of mankind and the jinn, other than which Allaah will not accept any religion from anyone.

Allaah says: ’Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam“ [Aal …Imraan 3:19]

’And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers“ [Aal …Imraan 3:85]

Once this is understood, it should be noted that the scholars have divided Tawheed into three categories, as follows:Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship), Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of Divinity) and Tawheed al-Asma‘ wa‘l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes).


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