Salah al-Khawf

The word "Khawf" means fear. Khawf is a type of prayer that is prayed during time of fear. This prayer was performed by the Prophet Muhammad (salAllahu alayhi wasalam) in the battle of Uhud.

Salat al Khawf is usually performed in place of normal prayer in the battlefield. When fear is severe, the Imam divides the people into two groups: one group [who remain] facing the enemy, and one group [who stand] behind him.

Then, he prays with this [latter] group one rak'ah with 2 sajdah. Then, when he raises his head from the second sajdah, this group goes back to face the enemy, and the [other] group comes [to take their place].
The imam leads them in one rak'ah with two sajdah, and then performs tashahud and taslim. [The followers] do not perform taslim, but [rather] go to face the enemy.
The first group [now] comes [back], and pray one rak'ah on their own, with two sajdah, without recitation, and then perform tashahhud and taslim, and then go back to face the enemy.
The other group [now] comes [back] and pray one rak'ah with two sajdah, with recitation, and [then] perform tashahhud and taslim.
[the explanation, taken from the "Mukhtasar al-Quduri" by Abu’l-Hasan Ahmad al-Quduri, a major classical book on Hanafi fiqh]

All scholars agree about the legality of such prayers:
(O Messenger!) When you are among the believers (who are on an expedition and fear that the unbelievers might harm them) and rise to lead the prayer for them, let a party of them stand in prayer with you and retain their arms (while letting the other party take their positions against the enemy). When the first party has prostrated (and finished the rak‘at), let them go behind you (to take their positions against the enemy), and let the other party, which has not prayed, come forward and pray with you, being fully prepared against danger and retaining their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you should be heedless of your weapons and your equipment, so that they might swoop upon you in a surprise attack. But there shall be no blame on you if you lay aside your arms (during prayer) if you are troubled by rain (and the ground impedes your movement), or if you are ill. However, (always) be fully prepared against danger. Surely God has prepared for the unbelievers a shameful, humiliating chastisement. [4: 102]

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